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Unknown unknowns

In scenario foresight, things we do not know that we do not know.


Famous quote by Donald Rumsfeld, United States Secretary of Defense, when talking about weapons of mass destruction during a press conference at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, in February 2002: “There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns – there are things we do not know we don't know.”
  • Norris, C.: Staying for an answer. Truth, knowledge, and the Rumsfeld creed, in: Philosophy and Social Criticism, vol. 30, no. 7 (2004): 777-798.
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