« Back to FrontPage

Unknown unknowns

In scenario foresight, things we do not know that we do not know.

Reference#

Famous quote by Donald Rumsfeld, United States Secretary of Defense, when talking about weapons of mass destruction during a press conference at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, in February 2002: “There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns – there are things we do not know we don't know.”
  • Norris, C.: Staying for an answer. Truth, knowledge, and the Rumsfeld creed, in: Philosophy and Social Criticism, vol. 30, no. 7 (2004): 777-798.
0 Attachments
1209 Views
Average (0 Votes)
Comments