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Treaty of Lisbon
Effective since 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon amended the two treaties that comprise the EU’s constitutional basis: the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (formerly known as the Treaty establishing the European Community). This increased the EU’s power in several policy areas by changing required unanimity to double majority voting in several policy areas, especially in the fields of justice, security, and defence. The treaty gave the EU legal personality and expanded the Union’s mandate to some new policy areas and abolished the three-pillar system introduced in the founding version of the Treaty on the European Union (Maastricht 1992, entered into force in 1993).
- Laursen, F.: The EU as an International Political and Security Actor after the Treaty of Lisbon: An Academic Perspective. Paper prepared for Global Jean Monnet/ECSA World Conference 2010 “The European Union after the Treaty of Lisbon”, Brussels 25-26 May 2010.