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Geopolitics is about control over space, not only borders. The modern states’ geopolitics is equipped with a variety of sophisticated instruments within the range from total information, transnational banks, intercontinental pipelines and control of maritime traffic, through terrorist networks and hybrid armies to missile technologies and nuclear weapons. Geopolitics is deeply rooted in ideology, economic growth and history (Europe has been politically established around five geopolitical centres). It closes the circle of multiple security drivers and completes the spectrum of considerations that affect decisions on EU security issues.
- Cohen, S.B.: Geopolitics of the World System. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
- Flint, C.: Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions. London/New York: Routledge, 2006
- http://www.globalissues.org/issue/65/geopolitics (Global Issues. Social, Political, Economic and Environmental Issues That Affect Us All)