European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders
The European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders (Frontex) was established in 2005 as an intelligence-driven EU agency. Its mission is to coordinate, reinforce, and streamlines operational cooperation between EU Member States, Schengen Associated Countries, and other partners in order to enhance the external border security of the Union. Its six main responsibilities include:
- Risk analysis at the EU’s external borders;
- Coordination of pan-European operational border cooperation;
- Establishment of common training standards for border guard authorities;
- Development of an EU research platform for border guard personnel and representatives of industry;
- Assignment of Rapid Border Intervention Teams (RABITs) in case of (unforeseen) crisis situation at the EU’s external border; and
- Assisting joint return operations of the Member States.
Frontex can be seen as an effective barrier to cross-border crime and external threats.
- Leonard, S.: The creation of FRONTEX and the politics of institutionalisation in the EU external borders policy, in: Journal of Contemporary European Research, vol. 5, no. 3 (2009): 371-388.
- Neal, A. W.: Securitization and Risk at the EU Border: The Origins of FRONTEX, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 47, no. 2 (2009): 333-356.
- Rijpma, J.J.: Frontex: Successful blame shifting of the Member States?, in: Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 1 (2007): 1-6.
- http://www.frontex.europa.eu (Frontex website)