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“‘Dual-use items’ shall mean items, including software and technology, which can be used for both civil and military purposes, and shall include all goods which can be used for both nonexplosive uses and assisting in any way in the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices” (Council Regulation (EC) No 1334/2000, Article 2a). The dual-use term originally arose in the single European Market for export control purposes and was later adopted to security policies.
- EC: Council Regulation (EC) No 1334/2000 of 22 June 2000 setting up a Community regime for the control of exports of dual-use items and technology.
- European Union: Regulations Council Regulation (EC) No 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 setting up a Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items.